Not so long ago, the surface finish in the room consisted of a simple whitewash, or wallpapering, on the newspaper layer. If cracks were observed in the walls, then they were cemented with cement or alibastro. Now, for the finishing works, there is a certain algorithm in which the final puttying of the walls is an obligatory stage, thanks to which a perfectly flat surface is obtained.
What is the final putty used for?
Finishing putty - the stage of rough finishing, which involves obtaining a perfectly smooth coating for further application of paint, decorative plaster, or wallpapering. Thanks to the application of the finish, putty layer, the walls become even, resistant to high humidity, to the appearance and spread of fungal formations and mechanical damage.
Finishing putty is a soft, homogeneous, elastic mixture without coarse-grained impurities. The finishing composition is applied with a layer no more than 2 mm. Recently, a mixture appeared on the market - a superfine putty, which is applied by a layer of 0, 3 mm, it masks microscopic scratches from the spatula.
How to make the right choice of finish putty? The material should have the following qualities:
- the composition should easily lie on the walls without sticking to the instrument;
- even a minimal layer, should hide the defects of the base layer;
- should be crack-resistant;
- hold same white color.
If in the final shawl at the time of detection, foreign inclusions were found - the material is not of proper quality and is subject to replacement.
Types and characteristics of the finish putty
For the finishing of ceilings and walls, three types of material are produced:
- Finishing gypsum.
- Polymer (latex and acrylic).
Thanks to modern innovative developments, gypsum mixtures for finishing finish, have the following advantages:
These finishing mixtures have the following characteristics:
- economy - consumption of material 1.1 kg per square meter;
- does not shrink;
- applied evenly;
- has a fraction size of 0.15 mm;
- fast drying.
The material has drawbacks:
- not suitable for finishing wet rooms;
- the price of the material is an order of magnitude more expensive than the cement.
Most often, the material is used as a finishing plaster of plasterboard. In the composition there are special additives that protect the surface from aggressive attack. Drying time - half an hour.
Polymer Finish Putty
This material appeared on the market not so long ago, but its popularity is growing exponentially. Many masters advise to use this material, as the polymer finish putty has a lot of positive properties:
- resistant to deformation;
- does not shrink;
- has a high adhesion to mineral surfaces;
- It has a vapor barrier, so it can be used for outdoor work;
- uniform drying gives a guarantee of a quality surface;
- work with the finishing putty will not be there, even for the beginner;
- not afraid of mechanical damage.
In other words - this is one of the best finishing materials, which has only one drawback, high cost.
Cement Finish Cement
Cement finish putty is used in all types of finishing works - both internal and external. This is a fine-grained composition, which is used for plastering concrete and brick surfaces. The composition has several advantages:
- Water resistance.
- Resistance to temperature changes.
- Easy to apply.
- Low cost.
Disadvantages of the material:
- Gives shrinkage.
- Cracks may form.
- Long dries.
Cement putty, finishing, thanks to its properties is used in damp areas, such as kitchen and bathrooms.
Purpose and application of the material
Starting putty - the first layer of finishing after the plaster. This material has a large fraction and high strength. This type of material has a high adhesion, no matter what surface it is applied to.
When choosing the starting putty, you need to take into account the thickness of the layer, which is acceptable for application, the maximum permissible layer is 25 mm.
Finish waterproof putty - applied by a second layer. This material is applied in a layer no higher than 4 mm and creates a perfectly flat surface on which any decorative material is applied to create a design. Due to its softness, the finish putty for painting is easily processed by diamond mesh or sandpaper.
Universal mixtures are multicomponent, complex compounds that can be applied both for the base layer and as a finishing coat of ceilings and walls. For non-professionals, this is the most convenient material, since all types of puttying are made by one composition. There are not many such compounds on the market, their cost is quite high.
Rules for applying the finish putty
Work on puttying is carried out in stages:
- before the walls are ground, surface preparation is carried out - dedusting, removal of mold, dirt, application of soil;
- plastering of walls on beacons, if the curvature of the surface is more than 1 cm;
- application of the finish putty;
For different materials that will be used in finishing, there are nuances how to correctly apply to the walls of the finish:
- for vinyl and non-woven wallpaper it will be enough to apply one layer of putty, using paper, thin roll materials will have to perform two layers;
- if it is supposed to be painted with acrylic or polyme
r paint, then at least three layers of putty;
- if the paint is light colors, then it is worth applying superfinish composition on a polymer basis.
Facade finish white putty is applied to the surface of the walls with external finishing, only at a positive air temperature. Humidity of air in this situation does not matter.
How to apply the final filler?
The first step is to prepare the mixture according to the manufacturer's instructions. In a clean container, pour the right amount of water into which to fill the mixture and mix well with a drill with a "whisk" nozzle. Some compounds, especially polymeric ones, are subject to proofing, after which the mixture is re-mixed.
Then, using a small spatula, use a "help", 10 cm wide, to collect a small amount of the mixture and distribute it at the edge of a wide (35-40 cm) spatula.
Attach the instrument to the surface and smoothly distribute the material over the surface. First, the movement is made vertically, then horizontally. It is important that the finish putty lay flat.
It is advisable to apply the finishing layer of putty with a new tool, which has no defects in the form of chipping, rust, dirt and scratches, otherwise the flat surface will not work.
Once the composition is applied to the entire surface, it is left to dry for 12 hours, after which it is possible to start grinding.
You can sand the finishing putty in two ways:
- dry - with a fine-grained abrasive mesh, or finely fractional nazhdachki;
- Wet - to give the surface an ideal evenness, a damp sponge is used.
To ensure that there are no defects left on the unsoldered surface, and it turned out to be perfectly even, use a light bulb to be pointed at the wall at different angles - where a shadow appears, there are defects. Under painting it is necessary to prepare a wall very carefully, otherwise any unevenness will be visible on the wall.
Rating of finishing putties
The most popular fillers for finishing the walls are:
|Type of material||Description|
|Ceresit CT 127||Putty on a polymer base, for interior finishing of surfaces. Good quality at an affordable price. It is easy to apply due to plasticity, it is not bad smoked.|
|Knauf Multi-finish (based on cement)||Putty for the facade. Excellent material of the famous manufacturer of building mixtures. Plasticity leaves much to be desired, but generally not bad mixtures.|
|Knauf Multi-finish gypsum||Putty for interior work. Excellent material that is widely used in construction work. Good elasticity, easy application. There is a small disadvantage - it is poorly cleaned after complete drying.|
|Vetonite||Well proven in the performance of finishing finishes for decorative coatings. Less is too high a cost.|
|Hercules||A wide range of finishing coatings, from plaster to polymeric ones. All materials are of good quality, while they are inexpensive. The market since 1997.|
|Erasers||Good mixes at low cost.|
|Eunice||Good mixes, produced on the newest equipment. Excellent elasticity, ease of application to the surface, dries quickly and is well processed further.|
If, during the repair in your apartment, it was decided to apply the finishing filler of walls and ceiling by yourself, then it is worthwhile to buy a universal material, since it is much easier to work with it.