Herbarium is a botanical collection of dried flowers and herbs. The Latin name of the herbarium is translated as "herbalist". The collection can include not only herbal, but also wood samples.
To get acquainted with the realm of plants, compete in observation, collect and arrange the herbarium will be interesting for adults and children.
Collection and design of the herbarium with your own hands
How to make a herbarium with your own hands? It is necessary to study the sequence of actions and precisely observe it. The algorithm of herbarium was developed by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. Since then, the rules for collection, drying and storage have not changed.
You will need:
- herbarium folder;
- parchment or any other paper that absorbs moisture;
- scissors for cutting plants, scapula;
- herbarium press.
How to collect plants for herbarium?
It should be clarified which species of plants in your geographic region have the status of rare and protected. Collect herbarium for personal needs from protected samples should not be.
Collect plants better in dry weather. For sorting according to the morphological features, the specimens are excavated along with the roots. Samples choose healthy and whole. Too thick rootlets and stems, inconvenient for drying, cut along.
Shrubs and trees cut off shoots with buds and greens. If the plant had to be excavated, it is cleaned of the remains of the soil.
How to dry the collected samples?
To dry plants correctly, use a special device called herbarium press. It consists of two plates, along the edges of which there are holes for the bundles. Prepared samples are placed in large quantities between the plaques, which are pulled together by strands. About 50 inserts with samples are placed in one herbarium press. The result is a kind of thick bandaged book. The insert leaf (it is also called the shirt), in which the plant is laid down, is placed with the label into the press, paving sheets of paper on both sides.
Too succulent plants are dried, pre-brewing them with boiling water. In the afternoon, the herbarium press is allowed to dry in the sun. At night - return to the room. Sheets with which liners are laid with plants, it is recommended to replace dry at least once a day. How to determine that the plant has dried up already? Leaves and flowers should be brittle in appearance and not sag in an upright position.
To obtain a herbaria from mosses or lichens, the sample is dried outdoors in a cardboard box.
According to the rules of herbarium, the folder is placed on a horizontal surface, then the plant is planted in it, trying to preserve its natural form. Excessive leaves that interfere with the bookmark, you can carefully remove, but the petioles in place of deleted leaves should remain. A number of leaves and flowers are unfolded by the lower side to the observer.
The dried herbarium is made in a special cardboard folder. On one page, you can arrange several plants of different shapes and sizes.
The herbarium of plants is stored for years, if all the conditions are met - for centuries. Dry flowers and plants last longer in a dry, ventilated room. The cabinets in which the sample folders are stored must be hygroscopic. To insects in the herbarium, it is treated with insecticides.
Let's introduce children
Children are probably interested in what you do with herbs and flowers. Employment herbarium helps the child learn more about the types of plants that he sees during walks.
Babies will be interested to make out dried flowers with the help of coloring paper. Suitable grass with small veins and details. To thin paper does not crumple, it is placed on a thick cardboard. The dried leaf the child places on the dye paper, covers with glass and takes out in the sun. A few minutes later, the visible print of the plant becomes clearly visible on the blue sheet.
You can invite the kid to make an unusual herbarium: an impression of the plant on a salt test or clay for modeling.
Compositions of dried flowers in the interior
A beautiful herbarium on the wall in a frame or vase can completely transform the home. Herbarium will fit in any interior. The room in the style of strict minimalism will decorate pictures with "prototypes" taken from the botanical collection.
On the walls of the children's room will please the child pictures in wooden frames with children
's appliqués. For the kitchen, dry compositions composed of spices or ears will suit. In the living room, you can put the dried gifts of autumn. Delicate bouquets of green ears in decorative vases, romantic and sensual flowers under the glass will complement the bedroom interior.
Lamps, made by themselves, are pasted with paper with a painted herbarium. Interesting dried flower compositions in glass bowls and candlesticks.
Herbarium of leaves
A herbarium of leaves is obtained by drying the shoots with leaves in the open air. When the leafy herbarium dries well, it can be covered with glass and framed with a frame. The paper on which the leafy herbarium is glued should be medium in density.
Herbarium of flowers
The herbarium of flowers is dried in the open air. A neatly formed bundle is tied with a string or wire, suspended or put in a dry low vase. Wheat spikelets and poppy heads are formed in an upright position.
Flower arrangers know how to make a herbarium of flowers, using a set of simple instruments. Before to begin to compose a flower composition, a florist-arranger who is beginning to need:
- lightweight porous base on which the composition will be formed (floristic sponge, wet sand, placed in a plastic bag and tucked into a vessel);
- metal tattoos for fixing dried flowers on a base;
- Bamboo or straw rods of different length for the stability of the composition;
- brown or green colored paper;
- transparent adhesive tape;
- glue, scissors.
When composing a composition, remember the color combinations: dry flowers in one bouquet should not be too contrasting. Paints are better to choose not bright, but muffled tones. Accessories such as ribbons, bows and laces should not be distracting. To fasten and decorate compositions from dried flowers you need cotton or linen ribbons.
Sometimes dry compositions are placed in fishnet podbuketniki. The shape and size of the vase or podbuketnika selected based on the dimensions of the composition. For dry bouquets will suit decorative vases of clay and wood.