Russian culture is beautiful in all respects. Artistic creativity always personified the wealth of the soul of every Slav, and the stylistics and original techniques of some trends are still relevant. For connoisseurs of primordially Russian motifs and anyone who is looking for original ideas for home needlework, the Khokhloma painting is both a source for inspiration, and an improvised handbook, how to transform absolutely any thing into a real work of art.
- 1 Description
- 2 Which items can be decorated with a painting
- 3 Types of painting
- 4 Background motifs
- 5 General concepts of technology
- 6 How to make a Russian painting yourself?
Khokhloma called the Russian folk craft, which originated in the middle of the XVII century in Nizhny Novgorod. Today it is a sample of a rich ornament that looks organically and stylishly in a variety of interpretations.
An ancient tradition says that once in the forests near Nizhny Novgorod on the riverbank lived one person. Nobody knew who he was or where, but everyone knew what wonderful paintings he could make so that simple utensils or household objects seemed made of pure gold.
The king, having learned about such craftsman, sent messengers to find the master and bring him to serve in the palace. The search lasted a long time, but nobody found this person. However, the master had students who continued his work. So in every house of the Novgorodians there were nemeros of treasures with ornate drawings, popular even today.
Which items can be decorated with a painting
According to ancient customs, they paint things of household use, dishes, some elements of the house itself. Ornament is decorated as a festive decor, and the everyday option. Most often, the painting occurs on such attributes:
- Nested dolls;
- Large and small plates;
- Chests of all sizes;
- Small barrels;
- The box;
- Spinning accessories;
- Handle knives and cutlery;
- Cutting boards;
- Shelves in the kitchen.
Aboriginal Russian traditional motifs are still relevant today.
At the height of popularity, you can find completely unconventional things with a list of "Khokhloma." In fact, any surface can become the basis for bold design experiments in the ethnic style: from home textiles and home appliances to airbrushing on cars or body art and tattoo designs.
Types of painting
Today dishes for Khokhloma - the most popular option for using Russian motifs in the interior. Interesting products can be bought in the store or made by themselves. There are two main types of murals in the Khokhloma style:
Horse painting is done by plastic strokes on the surface, which is previously proluzhivayut. The master initially applies a drawing of black or scarlet paint on the background of the future product. There are three types of ornament.
"Blades of grass"
They depict sedge, whitetail, meadow, using curls and various in intensity and nature of the application of the smear. The general background is supplemented with small berries, spikelets and silvery overflows, which enriched the background.
"Under the foliage" or "under the berry"
Masters work in large fat smears, through which they depict oval leaves and berries. Most often they draw chamomile, grapes, strawberries, currants and currant berries, bells, cranberries and gooseberries.
This is a geometric figure, consisting of a diamond or a square and a central element in the form of the sun. This type of painting is most conditional and simple.
There are patterns where only one type of pattern is used. The richest and most elaborate ornaments contain at once all types of drawings.
Background Khokhloma - a combination of black or red background with a gold pattern. For a letter of this kind, the following artistic techniques are characteristic:
- "Under the background." Initially, the master forms a drawing (fish, animal, plant, geometric composition), and then fills the background with the appropriate color;
- «Kudrin». This is an original technique that allows you to get a painted thing with an abundance of curly patterns. With the help of curls, any motifs and complex compositions are formed (from simple "grass" to complex images of animals or birds).
Golden Khokhloma looks most impressive when gold ornaments are combined only with black and red. Background painting is not complemented by other tones.
General concepts of technology
Initially, the masters made rough workpieces of
wood. In the common people this occupation was called "to beat the buckets". Surplus of wood was removed with a chisel, giving the workpiece the desired shape. Products were primed with wap (clay). After priming, the blanks should dry for at least 6 hours. Then the objects were covered with linseed oil. Usually the masters did not stint and processed future objects of decor and life with several balls of drying oil.
The next stage is intensive tinning. The surface of the billet was actively treated with aluminum powder. Now the product is ready for immediate painting.
For work, oil paints were used. Primary colors: red and black. To make the ornament more dynamic, and the composition itself is livelier, sometimes used additional shades: brown, light green, yellow, milky.
Once the drawing was ready, the product was covered with a thick layer of varnish. Then for 4 hours there was hardening in the furnace (the temperature reached 160 degrees and above).
How to make a Russian painting yourself?
Painted dishes will exude a special charm. To make an exclusive product will be able to beginner. However, before embarking on the decor of the chosen items, it is better to practice on plain paper or paper.
For the first lessons it is better to arm yourself with a simple brush and any colors. On paper, you can try to depict traditional floral motifs, smoothly moving to more complex animalistics.
When the technique is a bit honed, you can proceed to the practical part. To begin with it is necessary to pick up simple products with an equal surface. The most convenient in the work are the following subjects:
- The panel of a laptop or phone;
- Kitchen cutting board.
Perhaps, the best option for starting is a kitchen board. If the first experience is successful, it will be an effective addition to the interior in the kitchen. It is also important to remember that wooden utensils are more convenient to work with. But for plastic, silk and other specific textures, you should choose not only special paints, but also pre-process the surface itself, which will be painted.
About the materials
It is better to abandon unnecessarily rough textures and plywood from untreated wood. On the canvas should not be any depressions, jags and other defects, otherwise it will be an inaccurate khokhloma, dishes for the decor should also be originally of high quality and convenient for drawing the picture.
The easiest way is to get a ready-made set for products in the store. It usually consists of a prepared base and a set of colorants, as well as a set of brushes for drawing.
Selecting a picture
The main rule for beginners: to start with simple drawings, gradually complicating the ornament. The simplest "grass" and "leaves" can then be supplemented with berries, bunches of grapes, branches of willow.
At the next stage, when the hand is already stuffed, you can try to depict with the curls of a bird of paradise or a cockerel. The easiest way to find out what to put on the dishes, find on the Internet a couple of drawings for an example. Colorful pictures inspire and allow you to see with your own eyes interesting combinations of colors and the principle of working with elements.
Decorating dishes or any products, you can usefully and enjoy your free time. Finished goods are used as decor in the house or presented as an original gift to relatives and friends.