An increasing number of people want to live in a dacha with urban comfort. Conduct water in the cottage, bath or toilet is not difficult. How to install a kitchen sink, shower or toilet with a flush. However, the diversion of sewage to many seems a problem immediately for several reasons:
- the construction of a concrete cesspool is quite laborious and costly;
- If the cesspool is small, it will often have to be pumped out, which is uneconomical;
- The call of a sewer truck to a dacha can be quite expensive, especially if it is far from the city;
- With a high level of groundwater pumping will have to be done more often.
The output can be found in the septic device without pumping.
- 1 Device septic for giving
- 2 Septic for a summer residence without pumping out: advantages and disadvantages
- 3 Selecting a septic for summer cottage: how to calculate the volume
- 4 How to choose a place for a septic in the country?
- 5 Types of septic tanks for cottages
- 6 How to make a septic tank for a dacha with high groundwater?
- 7 Anaerobic septic tanks for cottages
- 8 Septic tanks for cottages: which is better
Device septic for giving
A septic tank is a waste water reservoir in which solid organic particles are decomposed by microorganisms into carbon dioxide, methane and water. The most effective are septic tanks, consisting of two or three sections. All sections are interconnected by overflow pipes, have inspection hatches and ventilation. The sections are hermetic, and in the last bottom is drainage.
The principle of septic action is as follows:
- Sewage enters the first settling chamber. In it, the solid particles settle to the bottom, and the water after this primary purification is poured into the next section.
- In the second tank, the water is purified using bacteria that decompose the organic matter. As a result, decomposed organic material settles to the bottom in the form of silt.
- Clarified water enters the third reservoir-drainage and absorbs into the ground.
Purified water in this way poses no danger.
Septic for a summer residence without pumping out: advantages and disadvantages
Having arranged on a summer residence a septic tank without pumping out, it is possible to receive weight of advantages:
- complete absence of unpleasant odors, since only carbon dioxide and methane are released through the ventilation holes, which are odorless;
- yl, formed on the bottom, is a decomposed organics and is quite suitable as a fertilizer;
- water after cleaning with bacteria is considered completely safe for the environment and can be used for irrigation;
- properly assembled septic tank does not need special care and can do without cleaning until ten years;
- the entire system is underground, does not occupy space and does not damage the landscape;
- the septic tank is non-volatile if no aerators are used;
- a small septic can be made by hand from improvised means.
Disadvantages of such a septic are relative:
- use of chlorine-containing detergents leads to the death of bacteria;
- In a few years the system will still require pumping;
- the price for a septic tank is high enough.
It is also worth noting that the improperly calculated productivity of a septic tank can lead to the fact that the water, before it has been cleared, will enter the soil, therefore, before installing the treatment system, it is necessary to carefully calculate how much water will enter it daily.
Selecting a septic for summer cottage: how to calculate the volume
According to the sanitary norms, one person uses about 200 liters of water per day. The same amount will go to the sewer. In the first storage section, the runoff must be at least three days, so the minimum septic tank, designed for one person, should contain 600 liters. Now we need to multiply this figure by the number of people and round it up.
For example, there are three people living in the house, which means that the total volume of sewage will be 1.8 m³, which means that the volume of the septic tank should be at least 2 m³. At the same time, the first section should account for 2/3 of the total volume. For the three-compartment septic tank, the remaining volume is divided equally into the remaining sections.
How to choose a place for a septic in the country?
When choosing a site for a sewage treatment plant, it is necessary to follow several rules:
- the distance to the basement of an apartment building must be at least 5 meters;
- from the well - 50 meters;
- from the reservoir - 30 meters;
- from trees - 3 meters;
if the site is on a slope, the septic tank should be located below the level of the house and the well.
Failure to comply with these rules can lead to the fact that sewage will enter the water intake and pollute the drinking water with harmful bacteria.
Types of septic tanks for cottages
The species of septic tanks that do not require regular pumping out are many. There are economical options from handy tools and ready-made factory installations. Most of them are non-volatile, that is, they do not need electricity. In country conditions this can be very convenient. Consider the most common options.
Septic-barrel for cottages
One of the most economical options for a summer sewage system in the country is a septic tank made of metal or plastic barrels. This simplest mini-septic for dacha can consist of one barrel, dug up in the ground. At the top of the barrel a hole is cut for the sewer pipe, the barrel itself is installed on a pillow made of coarse sand and gravel. This option is suitable only for gray kitchen sinks, provided that washing dishes are used sparing detergents (laundry soap).
An improved version of this septic tank will be two connected barrels. The first barrel-accumulator should be with a sealed bottom, the second barrel - drainage. In the second case, the barrels are better to choose plastic, as the metal quickly rusts the bottom.
Septic tanks for cottages from eurocubes
Eurocubes are plastic containers for water. Chambers from them should be installed on a solid concrete base so that the entire structure is not displaced by the action of groundwater. Before installation, the tanks are insulated for frost protection and installed in the foundation pit. Then the eurocubes are filled with water, the pit walls are concreted. Pipes for ventilation are vented to the surface. The system is insulated from above. For effective drainage in the system, it is desirable to add a filtration field that distributes purified water over a large area.
Simple septic tank for cottages made of concrete rings
For the device of a septic tank, concrete rings are often used. They are strong, durable, have good tightness. The system can be mounted quickly, but special equipment will be needed to transport and pack the rings.
Concrete rings are available in different diameters, they need to be selected taking into account the desired volume of the septic tank. The pit for such a septic tank must be concreted, a filter casing needs a pillow made of crushed stone. The rings are put one on the other, joints must be insulated with cement mortar and special waterproofing materials. At this stage, it is necessary to provide for piping to the rings.
It is important to calculate the slope of the pipe and its diameter. Then the concrete chambers fall asleep. Only the ventilation outlets and inspection wells remain above the surface. With an unmistakable calculation of the volume and proper installation, such a septic tank will save the worries of water disposal for years to come.
Septic tank for bricks
This inexpensive version of the sewerage system can be even cheaper if you are engaged in brick laying yourself. Since the whole system is underground, the flaws of such a masonry will not be noticeable. For septic tanks, clinker or ordinary red brick is used. The sequence of works on the construction of a brick septic tank is as follows:
- the excavation is excavated;
- sand-gravel mixture is poured on the bottom and the foundation is poured;
- the walls are laid out in one brick;
- sewage and ventilation pipes are installed;
- The masonry is insulated with bitumen or special mastic;
- the slab and the hatch for servicing the installation are laid on top.
In the presence of small skills in laying bricks, a similar septic can be laid out for a few days with your own hands. Only for the installation of the top plate can you need a truck mounted crane.
Plastic septic for summer residence
It can be a simple barrel, an eurocube or a factory system. The device of plastic septic for a summer residence is beneficial for many reasons:
- light weight to facilitate transportation;
- extensive range;
- long service life;
- resistance to aggressive media;
- good tightness;
- simple installation.
Companies engaged in the production of local treatment systems, have long appreciated all the benefits of plastic. Virtually all septic tanks are made from it. The big plus is that the production is recycled plastic waste.
How to make a septic tank for a dacha with high groundwater?
A high level of groundwater can become a big hindrance to the construction of a septic tank, since under-treated water can mix with groundwater and pollute it. The optimal solution will be the construction of a sealed septic tank. Instead of filtration fields, you need to use special filter cassettes, which are mounted on the surface. The most suitable material will be plastic or concrete, but from the use of tires, concrete rings or masonry it is better to refuse. The greatest efficiency will be brought horizontally located containers. To the system does not freeze, it must be well insulated. The degree of cleaning in this case will be higher if several cameras are used.
Anaerobic septic tanks for cottages
This type is a cesspool and is usually used as a septic tank for a toilet in the country. For large volumes of effluent it is completely unsuitable, but for a small amount of sewage it is quite suitable. Anaerobic septic is cheap and easy to install. For a holiday cottage with a low drain rate, such a system would be enough.
The process of decomposition of impurities in anaerobic septic can be increased by populating the colonies of bacteria that decompose organic matter. Then the degree of cleaning is doubled.
Septic tanks for cottages: which is better
The market offers many ready-made models for local wastewater treatment systems. Focusing on customer reviews and sales, you can make a rating of factory-made septic tanks. The following models are considered to be the best in quality and optimal in price:
- plastic septic tank of six cells with a biofilter "Ecopan" is designed for 6-8 people;
- installation of two tanks with a biofilter "Breeze". It is designed for 3-5 people who constantly use water;
- The modular septic "Graf" is available with one, two or three sections;
- The "Astra" purification system is designed to collect and process effluents from several private houses.
Without a doubt, the best septic tanks without pumping out are industrial designs, where all the subtleties are thought out by specialists, and manufacturers guarantee absolute tightness and a high degree of purification. However, a simple septic tank for a country house, made by yourself with all precautions, will always be a good and economical alternative to the factory one.