Heating the house with electricity is considered the most expensive, but if other types of fuel are not available, it is worth considering the most popular types of heaters that are powered from the outlet. The most economical are infrared. Their efficiency is much higher due to a different operating principle. Unlike conventional electric reflectors or radiators, infrared heat does not heat the air, but surrounding objects: floor, walls, furniture, people. Heated objects evenly give off heat, creating a feeling of comfort and dryness.
- 1 The design and operation of the infrared heater
- 2 Types of infrared heaters
- 3 Infrared film on the ceiling
- 4 Advantages and disadvantages of the infrared warm ceiling
- 5 How to make a warm ceiling in the house with your own hands?
The design and operation of the infrared heater
The steel case of the device includes a reflector and a heating element or a radiator. When connected to the network, the radiator heats up and emits infrared waves, which are perceived by man as thermal. The heating element can be made in the form of a TET - a tubular heater, an open or closed spiral, or a carbon coating in film heaters.
Reflector serves for directional heating and protection of the device itself from overheating. Infrared waves are completely safe for humans and animals, except for possible overheating. To prevent it, heaters are equipped with thermostats and sensors. With their help, you can set the heating temperature and turn off the device when it reaches.
Types of infrared heaters
By means of attachment, these devices can be divided into:
Very popular is the ceiling model. They occupy space only on the ceiling, which is almost always uncritical. They can not be accidentally touched and burned or accidentally leaned against a flammable object.
Correctly installed and directed the device evenly warms the entire zone, which is under it sleeping, dining or rest zone. And, finally, modern models look so neat and aesthetic that they only decorate the interior. It should be noted that the height of the ceilings should be sufficient, not less than 2.5 meters.
Infrared film on the ceiling
Even more interesting is the novelty among heaters - infrared film. It is a polyethylene film inside which conductive and heating coal elements are soldered. The film is much more convenient than a conventional heater. You can:
- to strengthen on any equal place - a floor, a ceiling or a wall under a window;
- cut into pieces of the right size on special lines;
- hide under a tension or suspended ceiling.
Compared with the heater, the film does not heat up so much. For a good warm-up of the room, especially in the cold period, you will have to cover a fairly large area. But this product is absolutely fireproof. It is also light, it is produced in rolls, which are convenient to transport.
Advantages and disadvantages of the infrared warm ceiling
In comparison with other types of heating systems, a warm ceiling has many advantages:
- the greatest economy in comparison with conventional radiators and reflectors;
- the room retains a natural moisture level;
- simple installation and the absence of labor-intensive operations;
- simple automatic control will allow you to forget about temperature changes;
- the possibility of installation in buildings of any type, including wooden ones;
- a wide choice of finishing ceilings.
Of the major drawbacks can be identified only the ceiling height, but in this case, you can get out of the situation. For example, when installing a thermal film, go around places where people are constantly: above the head of the bed or above the workplace.
How to make a warm ceiling in the house with your own hands?
Installation of infrared film on the ceiling occurs in several stages:
- thermal insulation of the ceiling;
- calculation of the area of the film;
- mounting film, thermostat and sensor;
- connection to the network and operation verification.
Before the installation of the thermal film, it is necessary to finish all work on the construction and finishing works on the ceiling, excluding finishing. Also carry out all work on the laying of communications and lighting wires.
Now consider the stages of installing a warm ceiling in more detail.
Thermal insulation of the ceiling
It is necessary in order not to heat an attic or neighbors a floor above. Correctly insulated ceiling all heat will be returned to the room, thus increasing the efficiency of the device and reducing energy costs. Thermal insulation with a reflective layer is attached to the entire surface of the ceiling and comes a few centimeters on the walls. This will prevent heat loss through the gaps between the ceiling and the wall. Joints in heat-insulating material are sealed with adhesive tape. The material itself should have a thickness of at least 5 mm.
How to calculate the area of infrared film?
For the correct calculation of the required area, the following should be taken into account:
- how well the building itself is thermally insulated. For a brick house or a light frame structure, this data will be different;
- whether it is planned to live in the house in winter, constantly or by visits;
- volume of the heated area. This can be either the whole room or part of it;
- whether the infrared heating is the primary or additional.
If a warm ceiling is planned as the main type of heating, it should occupy not less than 70% of the total area of the ceiling. As an additional, this figure can be reduced, respectively, the power of the main heating system. The average thickness of the film is about 0.2 kW per 1 square meter. By dividing the power of the thermostat by this number, you can find out the area of the film that can be connected to it.
Installation of heat equipment
Thermal film can be cut only on the special lines marked on it. Each type of film has its maximum length of the segment. This information can be found in the attached documentation or ask the seller. Between the film and the insulation of the
ceiling there should be no gaps and air layers.
Next, you need to connect the copper contacts of the conductive bus to the electrical wires using the contact clips. One half of the clip must be located on the copper bus, and the other - inside the heater. After that, the film ends are insulated with bituminous tape from both sides.
The sensor is attached to the cutout of the thermal insulation and connected to the regulator and heating elements.
Connect the thermal film through the regulator to the mains in parallel. If a warm ceiling will have more power, it is better to connect it through a separate machine.
Correctly mounted warm ceiling when switched on should emit comfortable even heat, nowhere to overheat and timely turn off when reaching the set temperature.
Next, the final finishing of the ceilings. This can be a stretch ceiling with special microperforation. She perfectly passes infrared waves. Stretch ceiling in this case is mounted along the edges of the wall, without affecting the ceiling itself.
You can also close the structure with a suspended ceiling: gypsum board, lining or plastic panels. Between the tension or suspended ceiling and the infrared heating system, you need to leave a small gap. For finishing the ceiling, waterproof materials with a thickness of no more than 16 mm should be chosen.
The infrared heating system for ceilings is the most modern, safe and effective of all electric heating options. With proper installation, it will last a long time, filling the house with warmth and comfort and remaining completely invisible.